Wednesday, April 18, 2012

Backeberg's Trichocereus Lexicon ~*

From Curt Backeberg's Cactus Lexicon: (Pictures by yours truly)

Trichocereus (Berg.) Ricc. (86)

A genus of columnar cacti of very variable size, sometimes very large to tree-like, others forming only low colonies. The spination is equally variable. The constant character is the funnelform shape of the nocturnal flowers, this in some cases being fairly long, while others have a stouter tube, but in form and hair-development they quite closely resemble Echinopsis. Since one species of the latter genus is known to attain a height of 1.5 m, while Trichocereus includes quite low-growing grouping plants, in both cases showing a columnar habit, any generic delimitation based on growth-form and floral characters is difficult (see also the introductory remarks to Echinopsis). Nevertheless the relative groups of species, like those from Chile, are so clearly distinct that a conventional segregation of Echinopsis and Tnchocereus became inevitable, in order to overcome the extremely difficult consequences resulting from unification; this consideration should be given due weight in other similar cases. At one time the Helianthocereus species also were included in Trichocereus—the tall-growing species despite their uniformly divergent habit, and the lower-growing ones irrespective of the fact that, like all members of Helianthocereus, they have diurnal flowers which are also brightly coloured; consequently there was continuing uncertainty as to where they should be referred. But here again, segregation has proved beneficial; and a similar delimitation can usefully be carried out within the Genus Trichocereus, since the flowers of the Chilean species, which in some cases remain open for several days, are also more bellshaped-funnelform:

5G. 1: Trichocereus: Flower-length averaging 18 cm;
SG.2: Medioeulychnia Backbg.: Flower-length averaging 10cm, flowers (in part) remaining open for several days.

The figures in brackets after the different specific names refer to the appropriate subgenus. The fruits of Trichocereus are only insignificantly different from those of Echinopsis since, at most, they are only slightly larger, spherical or oblong, almost always green and hairy, rarely reddish—and this too occasionally occurs in Echinopsis. The seeds, so far as known, are black, rarely dark brown.— Distribution: from Ecuador to S. Central Argentina, and in Chile. [®.] For any specific names not found here, see under Helianthocereus.

T. bridgesii (SD.) Br. & R. (1)
Bo. forming a tall branching shrub to 5 m h., pale green, ± frosted; branches to 15 cm z; Ri. 4--B, rounded, later flatter; Sp. 2—6, yellowish, acicular to subulate dissimilar, to 10 cm long., shorter in cultivated plants; Fl. 18cm long., white; Fr. oblong, 6 cm long.—Bolivia (La Paz).

T. cajasensis (FR 869): no description available.

T. carmarguensis Card. (1)
Bo. columnar, to 50 cm h.; branches ± curving, ascending, light green; Ri. 14, very low; Rsp. 12—13, radiating, to 3cm long.; Csp. 2—3, to 5cm long.; Sp. all acicular, yellow or ash-coloured; Fl. to 20 cm long., white; Sep. purplish-green; Tn. and Ov. with brown and white H.; Fr. spherical to ovoid, 2 cm diam. dark brown, glossy—Bolivia (Cinti, near Camargo). Appears closely to resemble T. strigosus.

T. campos-portoi Werd.: Arthrocereus camposportoi (Werd.) Backbg.

T. candicans (Gill.) Br. & R. (1)
Bo. erect or upcurving, to 75 cm long., yellowish-green, forming colonies to 3 m br.; branches 8—12 cm ~ or more; Ri. 9—11, broad, low; Ar. large, white; Rsp. 10—12, to 4 cm long.; Csp. mostly 4 recognisable as such, to 8 cm long.; all Sp. fairly stoutly subulate to stoutly acicular, yellowish or horn-coloured, spreading; Fl. to 20cm long., strongly perfumed, white; Fr. ellipsoid-spherical. —Argentina (Mendoza; Córdoba).

v. courantii K. Sch. (Cereus): see under Tnchocereus conrantii (K. Sch.) Backbg.;
v. gladiatns (Lem.) Berg.: Ba. bluish to pale green, to 65 cm h., little branching; branches to 14 cm diam; Ri. to 11; Ar. large; Rsp. to 13, to 5 cm
long.; Csp. 1—4, to over 7.5 cm long.; Sp. more subulate, yellow, often banded red, or red below, sometimes twisted;

v. roseoflorus Backbg., on the basis of most recent information, is referable to the spec. described here for the first time: Helianthocereus pseudocandicans Backbg. (see under the latter); v. tenuisplnus (Pfeiff.) Backbg.: Ba. intense bluish-green, less freely branching, to 85 cm h., toc. 13cm z;Ri. 9—11, to 4cm br. below;Rsp. 12—] 3; Csp. 1 (—4); Sp. faded yellow, brownishred below, all thin and rather short; Fl. white.

T. cephalomacrostibas (Werd. & Backbg.) Backbg. (2)
Bo. in dense groups to 2 m h.; St. to 10 cm 25, greyish-green; Ri. 8, broad, thickened around the Ar. which are divided by transverse furrows and are to 1.5 cm long. and br., thickly brown-felty, prominent, very crowded at the apex; Rsp. to c. 20, very short, subulate; Csp. 1—3(—4), very stout, to 12 cm long., dark brown at first, later faded grey, sometimes angular and channelled, rather curving and variously projecting, in part interlacing; Fl. to c. 12 cm long., white, c. 10 cm diam (acc. photo, x 0.5 magnification, by Akers in C. & S. J. (US], XX: 9, 131. 1948, Fig. 98); Fr. oblong-spherical, reddish or yellowish-orange.—S. Peru (above Mollendo). This spec. has been compared with Weberbauerocereus but the Fl. are much larger or wider. Rauh is correct in stating that this spec. is close to Weberbauerocereus—but th~ same could be said of all the SG. Medioeulychnia. It is a group within Tnichocereus which is intermediate to the closely related Genus Weberbauerocereus.

T. chalaensis Rauh & Backbg. (1)
Ba. with erect branches, to 4 m h.; branches swelling during the foggy season to 15 cm diam; Ri. 8, c. 2 cm br., with a transverse furrow above the Ar., this furrow with a plane surface above and below; Rsp. 6—10, to 1 cm long.; Csp. 2—3, to 5cm long., dark brown at first, or blackish above; Fl. 17cm long., 10 cm hr.; Tn. 2cm thick, with black H.; Sep. wine-red above, green at midway; Pet, white; Sti. white.—S. Peru (8 km S. of Chala).

T. chilensis (Colla) Br. & R. (2)
Bo. columnar, branching from the base, to over 3 m h.; branches numerous, stout; Ri. to 16-17, low, broad, tuberculate; Rsp. 8—12, to 4cm long.; Csp. 1, short, to 4—7(—12) cm long.; Sp. amber at first, or blackish, tobacco-brown or intermediate shades, later whitish-grey, often darker-tipped; Fl. to 14cm long., concolorous white; Sep. reddish or brownish-white; Sti. cream; Fr. spherical.—Chile (Prov. Atacama to Prov. Curico, with a distribution measuring 600 km from N. to S.).
A very variable spec., hence the many synonymous names for forms. The specific name was first written as “chiloensis”; acc. Skottsberg this could be regarded as an incorrect spelling of a geographical name, and could therefore be amended (the plant certainly does not grow in Chiloë); the spelling “chilensis” was used by both Pfeiffer and Schumann.

v. ebnrneus (Phil.) Marsh. appears to be more justifiable as a variety; Ba. stouter; Sp. brownish at first, soon becoming ivory-white; Fl. pink, or suffused pink (Marshall, Borg).
The spec. has at times been confused with T. litoralis (Joh.) Loos., also from Chile, which it somewhat resembles; T. litoralis has yellowish Sp. which are appreciably shorter, while the Fl. are believed to remain open for several days.

T. chuquisacanus (FR 863A): no description

T. coquimbanus (Mol.) Br. & R. (2)
Bo. prostrate or decumbent, forming large colonies; St. to 1.2 m long., to 10cm diam; Ri. to 14; Ar. large, round, shortly woolly; Sp. to c. 20, very dissimilar, Csp. scarcely differentiated, sometimes 1 longer, stoutly subulate, to over 5.5 cm long., shortest Sp. only c. 12 mm long., all terete, grey, dark-tipped; Fl. to 12 cm long., white, fairly strongly black-hairy; Fr. spherical, green, 5 cm 25.—Chile (Prov. Coquimbo, along the coast).

T. courantii (K. Sch.) Backbg. (1)
Bo. erectly columnar, to 35cm h., over 7cm ~, dull green, offsetting from the base; Ri. c. 10; Rsp. 9—li and more, finally to. 20, faded yellow to brownish;
Csp. 1—4, similarly coloured, darker and thickened below; Fl. 24 cm long., rose-scented.—Argentina (Bahia Blanca; Rio Negro; Rio Colorado).
acc. Spegazzini, old plants can be 1.5 m h.; this spec. is one of the best and most robust grafting-stocks.

T. cuzcoensis B. & R. (1)
Ba. erect, to 6 m h., densely branching, light green at first; Ri. 7—8, low, rounded; Ar. to only 1.5 cm apart; Sp. numerous, to 12, very stout, to 7cm long., thickened below, subulate, yellow; Fl. c. 14 cm long., white—Peru (Cuzco region).

T. damazioi (K. Sch.) Werd.: Arthrocenens damazioi (K. Sch.) Berg.

T. deserticolus (Werd.) Loos (2)
Ba. branching from below, becoming 1—1.5 m h.; Ri. 8—10, deeply incised, 1.5—2.5cm h., with distinct furrows above the Ar. ; Ar. to 1.5 cm apart, covered with dark woolly felt; Rsp. irregular, c. 15—25, thinsubulate, l—1.Scmlg.,darktogrey;Csp. l—3,to 12 cm long., sometimes rather curving; Fl. 7—8 cm long., pure white, with dark wool outside.—Chile (near Taltal). acc. Werd.: “related to C. nigripilis”. See Tnicho. fuivilanus Ritt.

T. escayachensis Card.: Helianthocerens escayachensis (Card.) Backbg.

T. fasicularis (Mey.) Br. &R.: Weberbauerocerens fascicularis (Mey.) Backg.

T. fulvilanus Ritt.—”Kakt. u.a. Sukk.”, 13: 10, 165—167. 1962 (2)
Ba. branching from the base, grass-green to greyish-green, 1—1.5 m h. and more; branches 4—7 cm diam; Ri. 8—12(—13), obtuse, notched across half the width; Ar. shortly oval, to 1.25 cm long., with orange to reddish or yellowish felt at first, later brownish black (light brownish in seedlings, then becoming whitish from the base upwards: Backbg.); Sp. dark brown at first, greying; Rsp. 9—12, dissimilar, thinner to subulate, mostly 1.5—3 cm long.; Csp. 2—4(—6), spreading, 3—10 cm long., occasionally to 18cm long., stouter-subulate (judging by a photo of Ritter’s), later with the upper Sp. often finer (as also in several spec. of SG. Medioeulychnia); Fl. apical, 9—12 cm long., 7—9 cm ~, perfumed; Tu. with black H.; Ov. with grey and black H.; style light green; Fr. green, spherical, c. 4 cm diam S. ± matt black, 1.2mm long.—Chile (Taltal, or from Chaflaral to El Cobre).

When one considers that the Chilean spec. can be very variable in form—T. chilensis, indeed, shows wide variablity—then T. fulvilanus cannot be regarded as more than a form of T. deserticolus. The following characters are common to both spec.: areolar felt becoming darker with age, number and length as well as colour and thickness of spination, transverse notching over the Ar., overall height of mature plants, and above all even the locality; small divergences of Fl.-size and number of Sp. are well within the normal range, and no genuine differences can be recognised. It should also be recalled that Werdermann probably made his description from dried material. Before any description of a new spec., a comparison should obviously have been made with the living type-material, but this is believed to have been destroyed in Dahlem. What is the point of depositing type-material and making a new description unless a check is made as to identity with any previously described spec.? This shows the special effectiveness of the differential diagnosis with its brevity and emphasis on essential data, since similarities are then more speedily recognised than would be possible by means of a long descriptive text. I mention the point here to show why I have never considered the deposition of type-material to be a sufficient answer in itself, without adequate verification. Close-up photographs, especially those in colour, clear differentiation and adequate habitat photographs are, overall, preferable to earlier methods, and this case proves my point. Moreover a descriptive text together with photo, reproduced in printed form, is an insurance against loss, easily understood internationally, and also more readily available to all interested parties.

T. gladiatus (Lem.) Backbg.: Tnichocereus candicam v. gladiatns (Lem.) Berg.

T. glaucus Ritt.—Kakt. u.a. Sukk., 13: 11, 180-181.1962(1)
Bo. forming a bush 1—2 m h., branching from the base; branches 5—8 cm 25, first bluish then greyishgreen; Ri. 7—9, notched; Ar. grey, 1—2 cm apart, to 7.5mm long.; Sp. black, greying; Rap. 7—10, to 1.5cm
long., stoutly acicular, somewhat flattened, sometimes also brown; Csp. 3—6, 2—8 cm long., ± erect Fl. 13—19cm long., perfumed, white or delicate pink; Pet. to 2 cm br.; Sep. pink to ± blood-red; Tu. greyish-green; nectary brownish, to 2.3cm long.; style pale green; Fil. white, greenish below; Fr. grass-green, 4 cm long., pulp white; S. 1.2 mm long., weakly glossy, black.—Peru (Dept. Arequipa, along the lower Rio Tambo, on mountains and in the region of Ilo) (FR 270). (T. uyupampensis v. glaucus ?).
v. (forma Ritt.) pendens Ritt.—1.c.: Ba. hanging, or inclined and ascending; Fl., Fr. and S. unknown.—Chile (coastal cliffs near Arica) (T. uyupampensis Backbg. ?).

Acc. Ritter, this is a survival, only 3 plants having been found. In view of the unusual habit, and the fact that many characters are found in common, these may have been representatives of T. uyupampensis which perhaps once had a much more southerly distribution but, because of the increasing desiccation of the intervening areas (Ritt.), it has since disappeared there; it is the only prostrate or hanging plant of the sort in S. Peru. If my assumption is correct, the type of T. uyupampensis would need to be re-designated a variety, as shown above.

T. grandiflorus Backbg. n.sp. (1)
Somewhat like T. camarguensis. Ba. slender, erect; St. not as stout as in T. spachianus; Sp. concolorous yellowish, ± equal, Csp. little projecting; Fl. enormous, white, c. 17 cm long., 23 cm 25; Tn. and Ov. with brown H.; Sep. linear, brownish-olive; Pet, broadly spatulate, c. 3 cm br.; throat, Fil. and the lower part of the style light green; Sti. c. 15, 1.6 cm long. Nectary absent (!).—Bolivia (no more precise locality known). (Fig. 437.)
The spec. can be seen in the Botanical Garden of “Les Cêdres”, St. Jean, Cap Ferrat; it may have been found by Ritter, or it may be the spec. Cardenas regarded as T. lamprochlorus.

T. huascha (Web.) Br. & R.: Helianthocerens huascha (Web.) Backbg.

T. knuthianus Backbg. (1)
Bo. eventually tree-like, in age with a longer subterete trunk, to 3 m h.; branches to 10 cm 25, frosted, brilliant light bluish-green; Ri. c. 7, rounded, to 3cm br.; Rsp. 7; Csp. 1, to 10 cm lg., it and the Rsp. soon becoming concolorous whitish-grey although tipped yellowish at first; Ar. large, with much felt; Fl. large, white. —Peru (upper course of the Rio Maraflon).

T. lamprochlonns (Lem.) Backbg. n.comb. (Cereus Iamprochlorus Lem., Cact. Aliqu. Nov., 30. 1838, non T. lamprochlorus sensu Britton & Rose) (1).
acc, the original diagnosis: “Ri. 15; Sp. stiff, sharp, ± reddish-brown, translucent yellow when young, brown-tipped; Rsp. 12—15, 6—9 mm long.; Csp. 4, cruciform, longer, stouter, lowest one downcurving, 2.7—3 cm long.; Fl. and Fr. not known”.—Bolivia (acc. Rumpler).
Obviously this plant has been confused with T. neolamprochlorus since the time of Salm-Dyck, hence my repeating the description below. Britton and Rose recognised that more than one spec. was involved. In the Botanical Garden at “Les Cedres”, I saw the true spec., which has a conspicuously glossy green epidermis (hence the name “lamprochorus”):
Ba. erect, as robust as T. spachianus, glossy intense green; Ri. rounded, c. 11—12 at first; Rsp. 7 at first, later more numerous; Csp. 1 at first, later 4, cruciform; Sp. yellow below at first, brown above, later light-coloured; Fl. 15.5 cm long., 12—14cm 25, white; Sep. narrow, olive-brown; Pet, broader; Sti. 2 cm long., yellowish-greenish; Tu. with greyishbrown H.—E. Bolivia (precise locality not known). (Fig. 438.)
The spec. regarded here as the true T. lamprochlorus, which was found by Cardenas and probably also by Ritter, is glossy intense green, with rounded Ri. The Sp. are fewer in number at first, and only 1 Csp. is present. Later the spine-count of the original description is attained, and the Csp. are cruciform. The flowering plant shown in Fig. 1084, in “Die Cact.”, II, p. 1127, is another spec., sometimes held to be identical with T. lamprochlorus but in fact differing strongly from it (see also under T. grandiflorus Backbg. n.sp.).

T. litoralis (Joh.) Loos. (2)
Ba. columnar, erect, or arching over and then erect again; St. to 12 cm 25, dark to greyish-green; Ri. mostly 21, moderately prominent and ± tuberculate; Ar. 1 cm apart; Rsp. 9—20, thin-subulate, radiating; Csp. (l—)5—8, dissimilar, thicker, to 2 cm long. or more; Sp. honey-coloured at first, later grey; Fl. 12—14 cm long., 10 cm 25, rather curving, white, with dark H.—Chile (Aconcagua, coast N. of Valparaiso). Fl. said to remain open for 5 days.

T. macrogonus (SD.) Rice. (1) (1.)
Ba. eventually over 2 m h., bluish-green, branching; branches to c. 7 cm 25, ± frosted at first; Ri. mostly 7, rounded ± depressed over the Ar.; Ar. 1.5cm apart, grey; Rsp. 6—9, radiating, subulate, to 2cm long.; Csp. 1—3, rather stouter and longer; Sp. all horn-coloured to brown, later blackish or dark grey or greyish-brown; Fl. to 18 cm long., white; Fr. 5 cm 25, rather broadly spherical; S. black, glossy.— Origin? Never re-collected. A robust grafting stock.

T. manguinii Backbg. (1)
Ba. erect, branching freely from below, dark greyish-green; branches to 95 cm h., to 11 cm 25; Ri. 18—20; Ar. slightly sunken; Rsp. c. 11; Csp. to 5, to 4 mm long.; all Sp. brownish; Fl. to 16cm long., very broad, white; Sep. reddish-brown. —NE. Argentina or Paraguay?
Earlier often confused with T. schickendantzii, the latter with Fl. (Sep.) green outside; T. shaferi is lighter green, with fewer Ri. and Sp.

T. neolamprochlorus Backbg. (1)
Ba. forming colonies, branching from the base, moderately tall, mostly to c. 50 cm h., glossy, light green, later more dirty green; stems to 8 cm 25; Ri. 9—10, rounded, with transverse depressions; Sp. 15—18, radiating in all directions, pale yellow, reddish below; Rap. fine, stiff; 45p. recognisable as Csp., cruciform, stouter, to 2cm long.; Fl. c. 24cm long., 16 cm 25, white; Sep. narrow, red, recurved; Fr. oblong-spherical, green, sparsely hairy—NW. Argentina (Jujuy [Kuntze] and (?) Mendoza, Córdoba). Long confused with T. lamprochlorus.

T. nigripilis (Phil.) Backbg. (2)
Ba. erect to prostrate and then ascending; St. to 1 mlg.,to6—7cm25;Ri.toc. 12;Ar.darkgrey, 1cm long.; Rsp. c. 12, radiating, to 11 mm long., grey, darker above, reddish when seen against the light; Csp. 6, laterals to 1.5cm long., upper and lower Sp. to 2.8cm long., sometimes rather angular below, or more flexible, coloured as the Rsp.; Fl. e. 6.5 cm long., white, with many black H—Chile (Coquimbo).
[Haage says: T. nigripilis (Phil.) Backbg.: an unclarified species, referred by Ritter in part to T. serenanus Ritt., in part to T. spinibarbis (SD.) Ritt., whereas he amended Eulychnia spinibarbis Br. & R. to Eulychnia longispina (SD.) Ritt.]

T. pachanoi Br. & R. (1)
Ba. ± tree-like to 6 m h.; branches numerous, bluish-green, frosted at first; Ri. 6—8, broad, rounded, with transverse depressions over the Ar.; Sp. 3—7, dissimilar, to 2 cm long., dark yellow to brown; Sp. mostly completely absent on cultivated plants, which is the reason why this excellent stock is well-liked for grafting; Fl. to 23 cm long., white, with blackish H.—Ecuador (Chanchan valley).
Some 30 years ago I was responsible for introducing this spec., which is now regarded as the best grafting stock.

T. pasacana (Web.) Br. & R.: Helianthocenens pasacana (Web.) Backbg.

T. peruvianus Br. & R. (1)
Ba. erect at first, then arching over or even prostrate, to 7 m long., bluish-green, frosted; St. to 20 cm 25; Ri. 6—8, broadly rounded, with a V-shaped notch over the Ar.; Ar. large, brown-woolly; Rsp. 6—8, to 1 cm long.; Csp. most1y 1, to 4 cm long.; Sp. honey-coloured below, darker above; Fl. very large, white. —Peru (near and above Matucana, on the Central Peruvian Andean railway).

T. puquiensis Rauh & Backbg. (1)
Ba. branching, erect, to 4 m h., bluish-green; branches to 15cm 25; Ri. 8—10; Ar. c. 1 cm long., not surmounted by a transverse furrow but surrounded by a swelling; Rsp. to 10, 1—2cm long.; Csp. mostly 2, 1 of these more erect, to 10cm long., the other directed downwards, to 5—8 cm long.; Sp. chestnut-brown at
first; Fl. to 15 cm long., white, with brownish-black H.—Peru (above Puquio).

T. purpureopilosus Wgt. (1)
Ba. forming low colonies, branching from below, semi-prostrate and ascending; branches to 32 cm long., dark leaf-green, to 6.5cm 25; Ri. 12, low; Rsp. to 20, thin, to 7mm long.; Csp. mostly 4, cruciform, or 5, 3—7 mm long.; all Sp. light horn-coloured, carmine and thickened below; Fl. c. 21 cm long., white with a pink sheen; Sep. carmine.—Argentina (Sierra de Córdoba).

T. randallii Card.: Helianthocereus randallii (Card.) Backbg.

T. riomizquensis (FR 856): no description avail

T. rubinghianus Backbg.—Descr. Cact. Nov. III: 15. 1963 (1)
Ba. erect, over 3 m h., dark green; St. to. 8 cm 25 Ri. c. 16-17, moderately h., not very br., with transverse depressions present also on the flanks; Sp. to c. 8, mostly extending sideways and forwards, scarcely overtopping the Ri., some more central, scarcely longer, more clearly porrect, all Sp. acicular, yellowish to horn-coloured; Fl. large, numerous, slightly creamy to white; Pet. rather broad, apiculate; Sep. much narrower, greenish-white, decurved; Fil. and style white; Sti. numerous, thin, long, yellowish; Tn. and Ov. with blackish H.; Fr. oblong, 5 x 4cm, green; S. weakly glossy, black, c. 1.2mm long.—Origin ? Material said to have come from the Faust collection at Blanes, Spain, but now no longer there. Plant very vigorous and floriferous. Clearly distinguishable from any other spec. because of its dark green, fairly low and narrow Ri., and the relatively short fine Sp. (Fig. 439.) The plant is illustrated in “Die Cact.”, VI, 3708, 1962 (Fig. 3364).

T. santaensis Rauh & Backbg. (1)
Ba. branching from the base, to S m h., greyishgreen, slightly frosted; branches to 15 cm 25; Ri. 7, broad, flat, with a V-notch over the Ar.; Rap. 2-3, 2—3 cm long., brownish; Csp. mostly 1, to 4 cm long., coloured similarly; Fl. ?; buds with black H.— Central Peru (Rio Santa valley, Puente Bedoya, c. 3000 in).

T. santiaguensis (Speg.) Backbg. (1)
Ba. tree-like, to 7 in h., trunk cylindric; branches ascending, 6—10 cm 25, matt yellowish to pale green; Ar. white at first, to 1.5 cm apart; Sp. slightly recurved, lowest ones to 1 cm long., upper ones to 0.5cm long.; Csp. 1, stouter, 1—2cm long.; Fl. to 20cm long., unscented, white.—Argentina (Santiago del Estero, near Icafio, in woodlands).

T. schickendantzii (Web.) Br. & R. (1)
Ba. branching freely from the base to form groups to c. 25 cm h., intense green; branches curving upwards, to c. 6cm 25; Ri. 14-18, only 5 mm h., with slight depressions between the Ar.; Rsp. 9 at first, later more; Csp. 2—8; all Sp. c. 5—10 mm long., yellowish, flexible; Fl. to 22 cm long., white; Sep. green; Tn. and Ov. with black H.; Fr. edible. —NW. Argentina. Differentiated from T. manguinii by its lower habit, lighter epidermis and Fl. which are green outside.

T. schoenii Rauh & Backbg. (1)
Ba. branching irregularly from the base, to 3—4 m h., greyish-green; branches 10—15 cm 25; Ri. 7, c. 1.5 cm br. and 1 cm g.; Ar. yellowish-grey, 1 cm 25, 2 cm apart, surmounted by a V-notch; Rsp. 6—8, dissimilar, upper ones to 1.5 cm long., lower ones to 5 cm long.; Csp. 1—2, porrect or directed downwards, stout, to 7 cm long.; Sp. leather-brown at first, later tipped thus but otherwise grey; Fl. c. 16 cm long., white, with blackish-brown H.—S. Peru (valley of the Rio Majes, Chuquibamba, up to 3900 in).

T. scopulicolus Ritt. (FR 991): no description available.

T. shaferi Br. & R. (1)
Ba. quite strongly branching, to c. 50 cm h., light green; branches to 12.5cm 25; Ri. c. 14, 10-15mm h.; Ar. 5—7 mm apart, white at first; Sp. c. 10, acicular, to 1.2cm long., light yellow, Csp. not clearly distinguishable as such; Fl. to 18cm long., white, with brown H.—Argentina (Salta, San Lorenzo, 1800 m).

T. skattsbergii Backbg. (2)
Bo. branching from below, to 2mb., greyish-green; branches to 14cm 25; Ri. to 14; Ar. greyish-black, 8 mm long.; Rsp. c. 22—26, to 6.2 cm long., spreading, flexible, bristly, scarcely sharp, horn-coloured to grey; Csp. 3 more clearly recognisable, to 12cm long., light brown to grey; Fl. to 12 em long., white, with dense but not long, mouse-grey H.—Chile (Coquimbo, coast of Talinay; Frai Jorge).
v. brevlatus Backbg.: Bo. to. 1.6 m h. or rather more; branches to 12 em 25; Ri. to 16; Sp. numerous, ± hair-like in flowering Ar., to 40, mostly 1—3 longest ones to 6 cm long., hair-like ones only 6 mm long., almost half the Sp. bristle-like, coloured as in the type; Fl. c. 8cm long., white, with blackish H—Chile (Coquimbo, Frai Jorge).

T. smrzianus (Backbg.) Backbg. n.comb. (Eehinopsis smrziana Backbg., Kaktus-ABC, 219, 412. 1935 (1)
Bo. spherical at first, later cylindric, to c. 16 cm h. and more, becoming thicker, finally stoutly columnar, younger plants very variable, Sp. either short or longer, epidermis variously coloured, individuals occasionally to 40 cm long., ± prostrate and then ascending, mostly fresh green at first, later ± greyish-green, to 20cm 25 in age; Ri. c. 15, later to 3 cm br.; Sp. very variable, c. 7—14 at first, irregularly arranged, all thin, sharp, radiating, acicular to finer, from whitish to deep golden-brown, sometimes flecked or dark below; Fl. to 12 cm long., 12 cm 25, white, Pet, in several series; Sti. very long and thin.—N. Argentina (Quebrada Escoipe, upper part). (Fig. 440.)

Flowered for the first time recently in Rubingh’s collection, Soestdijk, Holland, to provide the above floral data; this variable spec. was referred for a time to Soehrensia because it closely resembles S. grandis in some characters; however, the Fl. have now been seen to be quite dissimilar. Since the tube of the above spec. is not very stout, it could equally well remain under its first name (Echinopsis), but stouter old St. look more like Trichocereus. The spec. thus belongs to the group which represents a transition from Trichocereus to Echinopsis. A similar situation occurs in some Chilean genera. These problems show that convential differentiation, using established criteria, is sometimes a necessity since Nature—by processes which still remain to be studied—creates every imaginable form, without any “classificatory principle” such as we require for our systematic arrangements. In general, delimitations of this kind reflect the facts of Nature, but demarcation still has to be made in accordance with clear guide-lines. It could also be argued for instance that Echinopsis shaferi—a plant growing to 1.5 m h. and to almost 20 cm 25, and completely trichocereoid in appearance—should be referred to Trichocereus.

T. spachianoides Ritt. (FR 980): no description available

T. spachianus (Lem.) Rice. (1)
Ba. branching from below, to over 2 in h.; branches ascending, to over one meter long., to over 6 cm 25; Ri. 10-15, rounded, fairly low; Ar. yellowish at first, later white; Rap. 8—10, 6 mm to 1 cm long., acicular, stiff, sharp; Cap. 1 (—3), stouter, longer; Sp. amber to brownish; H. e. 20 cm long., 15 cm 25, white.—Argentina (Mendoza; San Juan; La Rioja; San Luis; Jujuy, and found here by Frau Muhr, near Leon).
For a long time this was the most commonly used grafting stock, and it still is so on the Riviera, etc.; however it is more readily exhausted and more quickly becomes corky than T. pachanoi, which is now preferred because it lacks sharp Sp.; the latter does not lignify, grows in circumference with the scion, readily accepts the latter, and is usually quite spineless.

T. strigosus (SD.) Br. & R. (1)
Ba. offsetting from the base to form large colonies to over 1 in br.; shoats to 60 cm h., to 6cm 25; Ri. 15—18, very low; Ar. fairly crowded, with dense white wool at first; Sp. scarcely differentiated into Rsp. and Csp., acicular, variable in colour, from white through yellow to pink, reddish-brown or black, numerous, sharp, 1—5 cm long.; Fl. white to delicate pink, to. 20cm long., with brownish H.; S.2 mm long., glossy black.—W. Argentina (Mendoza; San Juan).
Fl. reported as being either scented or unscented; the probability is that, as known in other spec., they are perfumed only at certain times. To distinguish them from the purely white Fl., those with a ± lilac-pink colour could be described as v. roseoalbus (plants such as those in Monaco’s Jardin Exotique).

T. tacaquirensis Vpl.) Card. (1)
Ba. mostly branching from the base, to 2.5 in
branches fairly crowded, steeply ascending; Ri. variable in number, 2 cm h.; Sp. numerous, scarcely differentiated into Csp. and Rsp., ± bristle-like, especially at first, ± interlacing, flexible, to 8 cm long., those in the crown erect; Ar. large, round, white-felty; Fl. to 20cm long., white.— Bolivia (Tacaquira).

T. taquimbalenais Card. (1)
Ba. simple, or branching from below or sometimes from the flank (naturally, or only if damaged?), to 2.5 in h., lacking any trunk; branches robust, dark green, to 15cm 25;Ri. 9;Ar. 1.5 cm apart, 1cm 25, whitish; Rsp. 8—13, radiating, subulate, to 2cm long.; Csp. 1, porrect or directed downwards, stout, to 6 cm long.; all Sp. thickened below, light brown at first, then grey; H. to 23 cm long., white, with dark brown H.; Fr. 4cm 25, dark green; S. ± glossy black, 1.5 mm long.—Bolivia (Cochabamba, Taquimbala).
v. wilkeae Backbg.: Rsp. to 2.5 cm long., subulate, in part stoutly so, appressed, curving, sometimes ± hooked; Csp. 4, thick-subulate, sometimes compressed below, much thickened below; Sp. sometimes all dark at the base and the tip.— Bolivia (Tupiza).

T. tarmaensis Rauh & Backbg. (1)
Ba. branching from the base, to 2 inh., dark green; branches c. 10cm 25; Ri. 8, to 2cm br., rounded;
Ar. 0.8cm long., grey, appearing more sunken above, i.e. with a shallow, obliquely transverse depression; Rsp. 2—5, 1—3cm long.; Cap. mostly 1, to 10cm long., projecting horizontally; Sp. horn-coloured at first, later grey; H. white, with long H.; Fr. 3—4cm 25; S.

T. tenuispinus (FR 616, 867) and its v. pajanalensis I (FR 866, 871): descriptions not available.

T. tephracanthus (Lab.) Borg: Roseocereus tephracanthus (Lab.) Backbg.

T. terscheckil (Parm.) Br. & R. (1)
Ba. eventually ± tree-like, to 12 in h., trunk to 45 cm 25; branches parallel, ascending, over 15 cm 25, intense green; Ri. 8—14, to 4cm h. ; Ar. 1.5cm 25, to 3cm apart; Sp. 8—15, subulate, to 8cm long., yellow; H. 15—20 cm long., c. 12 cm 25, white, with brown H.—N. Argentina (Catamarca; La Rioja; Tucuman; Salta; Jujuy).

v. montanus Backbg.: Branches obliquely ascending, lighter green.—(Salta [Quebrada Escoipe]). Both plants are known to the natives as “Cardon grande” and Cardon del Valle”; some of the habitats listed for the former may thus apply only to the latter.

T. terscheckioides Ritt. (FR 993): no description available

T. thelegonoides (Speg.) Br. & R. (1)
Ba. with main St. to 6 in h., thick-cylindric, to 18 cm 25, branching above; branches to 8cm 25; Ri. to 15, low, rounded, strongly tuberculate at first because of the transverse depressions between the small, round Ar.; Sp. 8—10, 4—8 mm long., bristly, yellow or brownish; H. 20—24 cm long., white, greenish outside.—N. Argentina (Jujuy, on dry hills).

T. thelegonus (Web.) Br. &R. (1)
Ba. prostrate and ± ascending, dark green; St. to 2 as long., to 8 cm 25; Ri. 12—13, broad, rounded, divided into distinctly 6-sided Tub.; Ar. round; Rap. 6—8, acicular, ± spreading, 1—2cm long.; Csp. 1, porrect, 2—4 cm long.; Sp. brown at first, then grey, sometimes darker, to blackish, sometimes yellowish; H. c. 20cm long., white, with lax light H.; Fr. c. 5 cm long., red, dehiscing laterally.—NW. Argentina (Catamarca; Tucuman).

T. totorensis Ritt. (FR 990): description not available.

T. totorillanus (FR 851), from Bolivia: description not available.

T. trichosus Card. (1)
Ba. columnar, simple, ± clavate, to only 1 as h., greyish or bluish-green; Ri. 9, broad, rather obtuse, 2 cm h.; Ar. 5 cm apart, triangular, to 2 cm br. (surmounted by a depression?), grey; Rsp. 4-6, 1--3.5 cm long.; Csp. 1, projecting, to. 7cm long.; all Sp. subulate, grey, brown-tipped, thickened below; Fl. to 23 cm long., white, with white and brown H.; Sti. green, 2 cm long.; Fr. with long H.; S. 2 mm long., matt, black.—Bolivia (Santa Cruz, on the road Lagunillas—Santa Cruz, 600 as).

T. tropicus Ritt. n. nud.: Rauhacereus riosaniensis Backbg.

T. tulhuayacensis Ochoa (1)
Bo. to 2 ash., branching from low on the Bo., with a short trunk, dark green; branches to 12cm 25; Ri. (7—)8(—.9), to 1 cm h., to 3.5cm br.; Ar. to 8 mm long., yellowish at first, then grey, surmounted by a curving depression, prominences sometimes reddish; Rsp. 8, 1.5—2.5 cm long.; Csp. 3-4, to S.5cj8) cm long.; Sp. mostly directed downwards, longest one more porrect, whitish-grey, otherwise yellowish at first, dark-tipped; H. fairly large, stoutly funnelform, light pink, ivory-white towards the throat, with black and greyish-brown H.; Fr. 4.5 cm 25, dark green, with brownish H.; S. glossy, black. —Peru (10 km from Huancayo, near Huachac, 3400 as).

T. tunariensls Card. (1)
Bo. shrubby, to 3 ash., branching from below, pale green; branches erect, to 12cm 25 below; Ri. 16-21, l4.Scmh., 1.5—l.7cm br.;Ar. lcmapart,to 6 mm 25, grey; Sp. scarcely recognisable as Rsp. and Csp., c. 17, radiating, to 5—6 cm long., thin-aeieular, flexible, longest ones directed downwards, all yellowish; Fl. 15—17cm long., white; Sep. purple; Tu. and Ov. with brown and black H.; Sti. yellowish; Fr. spherical, 4 cm long., 5 cm 25, dark green, with short, dark brown, black and white H., edible; S. 2 mm long., glossy, black—Bolivia (Cercado, between Yurac Kkasa and San Miguel, 3800m).

T. uyupampensis Backbg. (I)
Ba. prostrate to pendant, to 2 as long.; branches to c. 3.5cm 25; Ri. 9, flat, narrow, slightly raised around the small, light brown Ar.; Sp. 8—10, fine, irregularly directed, mostly 2—6 mm long., darker, pointing up and down; Fl. c. 16 em long., white, reddish outside.—S. Peru (Uyupampa, c. 3000 as). See also T. glaucus Ritt.

T. validus (Monv.) Backbg. (1)
Bo. becoming tree-like(?), known till now only as stout, erect columns, green; St. to 35 cm 25; Ri. c. 10; Ar. fairly large above, to 3 cm apart; Sp. few or weak at the apex, developing later in the lower half of the Ar., pale yellow, sometimes darker above; Rsp. 7—10, to 3.2 cm long., the bottom one longest; Csp. 1—2, to 7 cm long.; Fl. to 14 cm long., white, with light greyish-brown H.; Fr. ovoid, woolly.—SE. Bolivia(?). Long known in collections as Echinopsis valida Monv.

T. vollianus Backbg. (1)
Ba. erectly shrubby, branching from the base, glossy, light green; branches to 10cm 25; Ri. c. 13, rounded, to 7mm br., 5 mm h.; Ar. to 2.5cm apart; Rsp. 8—11, radiating, thin, sharp, to 7mm long.; Csp. 1, to 2.5cm long.; all Sp. amber-coloured; Fl. to. 12 cm long., white; Fr. oblong, hairy.—Bolivia (ArqueCochabamba).

v. rubrispinus Backbg.: Sp. reddish-brown.
Resembles T. spachianus but glossy, and with opene~r spination; an excellent grafting stock except that the Sp. are very sharp.

T. werdermannianus Backbg. (1)
Ba. forming a large tree, to over 5 as h., with a trunk to 1 as long. and 40cm 25; Ri. c. 10 at first, later 14 or more, 2cm h. ; Ar. 2.5cm apart; Sp. on new growth c. 10, Csp. scarcely differentiated, to 7 cm long., later increasing in number, all yellowish, horn-coloured or brownish; Fl. to 20cm long., white, with black and white H.; Fr. 3.5cm 25; S. 1.3 mm long., rough.—S. Bolivia (Tupiza, Charcoina valley, probably to Chuquisaca).

There are several large Cerei which cannot with certainty be attributed either to Trichocereus or to Helianthocereus, in the absence of floral data. Some of them have a distant resemblance to Leucostele Backbg., but in Rivière’s collection this latter is now enormous, offsetting from the base and developing bristly ovaries and fruits; these characters are not present in Helianthocereus. In the possession of the well-known French botanist Roland-Gosselin, who made a speciality of the succulent plants, there are several of these Un-clarified plants, with laxer but stronger Sp.; when they flower, they may prove to belong to Helianthocereus. In the absence of any description it is impossible to say now whether they are identical with the Cerei Fri~ called Trichocereus cephalopasacana, with its v. albicephala; most likely these were members of Helianthocereus. On the other hand Trichocereus pasacana catamarcensis Fri~ undescribed, was probably Echinopsis gigantea R. Mey., or Trichocereus terscheckii. T. pasacana inermis Fri~, not described, was Echinopsis valida Monv., now Trichocereus validus (Monv.) Backbg.

Mention must be made here of Trichoechinopsis imperialis hort., a hybrid raised by the American breeder Hummel: a cross between a Trichocereus and an Echinopsis (probably E. eyriesii); even small plants bear enormous white Fl., and the plant is unusually quick-growing; it later becomes completely ceroid in habit and grows quite large, the spination resembling Echinopsis eyriesii. It is still found in several European collections and deserves to be more widely cultivated.

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